History and Social Sciences Courses

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The history and social science program is designed to provide students with a curriculum that will allow them to think imaginatively and critically about the world. Department offerings include a core of required global and American history courses, as well as history and social science electives that examine a broad range of cultures, civilizations, and elements of the human condition.To fulfill Milton Academy’s diploma requirements, students must take two history courses: Ancient Civilizations or Modern World History (in Class III or IV) and United States History (in Class I, or II or III). The history requirement may also be met by the two-year course, The United States in the Modern World. Students who have already taken Modern World History (in Class III or IV) may not take the two-year course.

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Ancient Civilizations
Class IV
This course serves as an introduction to the study of history. It examines a wide range of societies across the ancient world from East Asia to Western Europe to sub-Saharan Africa. Readings focus on the effects of geography on the growth of civilization, the interaction of cultures, the evolution of social and political institutions, religion and philosophy. Students read a significant number of primary sources as well as secondary accounts and interpretations. The course emphasizes building analytical thinking and reading and writing skills. In the spring semester, students conduct a major project in library research. (Class III students may enroll in Ancient Civilizations with permission of the department.)

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Modern World History: Class IV
Class IV
This course serves as an introduction to the study of history. It examines the chaotic and fragmented world of Eurasia after the Mongol imperium; out of this general chaos, the Chinese and Islamic empires established their preeminence in an already long-interconnected Asia. At the same time, European states—through exploration, exploitation, colonization and revolution—created the beginnings of a globally-connected modern world. Hence, we will trace the world from the 1500s to the end of the 20th century, and we will examine closely the ideas, individuals and events that shaped this new world. Students read a significant number of primary sources, as well as secondary accounts and interpretations. The course emphasizes developing analytical thinking, reading and writing skills. In the spring semester, students will conduct a major project in library research.

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Modern World History
Classes II & III
This course begins with an intensive study of the early modern world—a period characterized by increasing global contact and parallel evolution of economies, states and cultures. We compare Confucianism in Ming China, Islam in the Ottoman and Mughal Empires, and Christianity in Reformation Europe. We will consider the developments and repercussions of the French and Haitian revolutions, triangle trade, the Industrial Revolution and the onset of nationalism, Marxism and feminism. Our study will conclude with an examination of power and supremacy in the 20th century. We will emphasize the skills of close reading, interpretation of primary and secondary documents, and essay writing. Students will complete a major library research project in the second semester.

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The United States in the Modern World 1

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The United States in the Modern World 2

Note: In electing this two-year course, which fulfills the graduation requirements for both world history and U.S. history, the student understands that both years of this course must be completed, preferably consecutively, to receive graduation credit.

Students who have already taken Modern World History in Class III or IV at Milton will not be able to take this course.

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Classes II & III
The story of economic and political revolution—where its origins lie in the 15th and 16th centuries, how it is carried out in the 17th and 18th centuries, and how it re-shapes the world in the 19th century—is the story of this course. Students will study the modern history of the great empires of Eurasia, encounters between the peoples of Europe and the Americas, expansion of trade and technology, and the development of political ideologies. The American experience, from the voyages of Columbus to the Civil War, will be placed within the larger context of the modern world. Students will complete a major library research project in the spring semester.

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Classes I & II
The United States takes a central role in the second year of this course, beginning with the impact of the Civil War and industrialization on both domestic and foreign policies. Questions of new thought in social relations, in the application of science and technology, and in governmental roles and responsibilities in the United States and in selected other nations will be studied, so that the discussion of revolutionary change begun in the first year continues and broadens. A close consideration of several Cold War topics in the second semester will enable students to reach a greater understanding of the problems faced by the 21st-century world, in particular the impact of human history on the natural world. Students will complete a major library research project early in the second semester.

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United States History
Classes I, & II and III
Conceptual and interpretive in nature, this course examines both the important documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution, Gettysburg Address, and speeches of Frederick Douglass, Susan B. Anthony, Martin Luther King, Jr. and John Kennedy) and the multiple historical interpretations of an event or personality in the American past. Looking at the tension between freedom and order, democracy and slavery, urbanization and populism, gender and politics, localism and nationalism, students begin to see and understand that the principles and ideas fought for at the time of the American Revolution are unresolved in the later 19th and 20th centuries. Students will complete a major library research project in the spring semester. (Prerequisite: Ancient Civilizations or Modern World History)

Advanced Topics in History

Class I

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African-American History
(Semester 1)
In this course, students examine the African-American experience with an emphasis on individual and collective agency, political protest, and efforts to initiate social change. The course is organized chronologically. Students begin their study in 15th century Africa before moving quickly to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the historical foundations of black life in the antebellum and postbellum periods. The second half of the course stresses more contemporary issues of the 20th and 21st centuries. Throughout, students will grapple with questions that pertain to isolation and identity; individualism and collectivity; race and struggle; resistance and joy; African American history and United States history.

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History of Modern China
(Semester 1)
Traditional Chinese historians see China’s long and often triumphant history as a series of dynastic cycles, replete with periods of greatness and decline. The fall of the Ming and the rise of the Qing in 1644, as well as China’s reemergence as a major economic, political and military power in the late 20th century, can be explained in this historical context. But in order to fully understand the growing might of a “New” China, one must first examine the cultural, philosophical and political elements that have endowed the Chinese state with a degree of resilience unmatched elsewhere. We will begin with a careful analysis of the Ming and Qing periods in order to identify the core elements that constitute Chinese civilization. We will then examine how they directly influence the domestic and foreign policies of the People’s Republic, specifically in the context of political liberalization, ethnic minority relations, and global economic integration. Course material includes primary documents, secondary text and relevant films. Students should expect to write analytical essays of reasonable length (3–5 pages) every two weeks. The format of the class is in the seminar style commonly associated with college courses.

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History of the Middle East
(Semester 1)
This course examines the history of the Middle East from 1900 to the present. The geographic focus will be Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. We will keep two broad questions in mind as we follow the current political and social developments in the region: 1) What impact did Western imperialism and the process of decolonization have on society and politics in the Middle East? and 2) How did the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 start a process that has led to a reordering of the modern Middle East? Students will conduct individual research on the topics of their choice at the end of the semester. For students wanting to continue their study of the contemporary Middle East, the course of Globalization and Islam in the second semester builds on themes covered in this course.

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Asian American History
(Semester 2)
Not offered in 2017–2018
Asian Americans constitute the fastest growing population in the United States. Students will explore the history of this diverse community from 1850 to the present. Throughout this period, Asian Americans have been characterized as either the “model minority” or the “yellow peril.” By focusing on the experiences of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Asian Indian and Vietnamese Americans, students will develop a dynamic understanding of the documentation and interpretation of this history. Documentary films and readings about immigration policy, international relations, labor history, community development and political empowerment will be the focus of our studies. Students will conduct an oral history project at the end of the semester.

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Globalization and Islam
(Semester 2)
This course will explore the relationship between globalization and Islam in the post-9/11 world. Using readings from current scholarship, we will examine Islam in the context of the contemporary Middle East, Europe and the United States. We will also study ways in which the Arab world has been shaped by economic, political and social realities created by globalization. The first part of the course will introduce students to broad topics in globalization. Then we will work to understand Islam as a religion and consider how it is practiced in both the Arab and non-Arab worlds. The third part of the course will focus on the complex relationship between globalization, American foreign policy and the rise of religious extremism in Europe and the Middle East. This course offers an optional trip to Jordan during the March vacation.

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Topics in Modern World History:
In the Aftermath: Case Studies in Transitional Justice
(Semester 2)
What should happen after a government’s violence against its citizens? Who should decide? The class will focus on specific case studies to explore three kinds of responses to government crimes against citizens: the policies of official forgetting (e.g., post-Franco Spain; Argentina); truth telling and reconciliation movements (e.g., post-apartheid South Africa; Australia); international prosecutions (e.g., Khmer Rouge in Cambodia); and reparations (e.g., Canada/First Nation Peoples; US government/slavery). We will also explore responses from artists, filmmakers, theologians, psychologists and survivors to understand the challenges and promise of transitional justice. Projects will include persuasive and analytical writing along with training for and practice of interviews, mediation and mock trials.

History Electives

Classes I & II

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History of Civil Rights
(Half Course)
In this course, we will examine a number of questions about the struggle for justice and equality in the United States. What did the civil rights workers of the 1960s hope to accomplish? What were they able to achieve? How did American society respond to this movement for social change? The first half of the course is devoted to understanding the relationship between oppression and resistance, focusing on the legacy of segregation. We will then take a look at the events that shaped the modern civil rights movement. Course work includes journal writing, reaction papers, and a final research project about a contemporary civil rights issue. This course challenges students to develop a clear historical perspective about one of the most revolutionary periods in our history.

Social Sciences

Classes I & II

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American Government and Politics (AP)
(Semester 1)
The heart of this course is an examination of the interactions between the policy-making institutions of the United States government (Congress, the presidency and the executive branch, and the Supreme Court) and the nature of American political parties, interest groups, the media, and the American electoral practices. With a focus on current events and the 2016 elections, we will begin to see how the United States’ constitutional underpinnings are enforced and complicated by political culture. Through this course, students will be engaged in following political events in and out of the class, as well as partaking in independent research as a way to understand and contribute to political processes. Ultimately, this course will equip students with the foundational understandings to engage thoughtfully and purposefully in politics, while also allowing for the practice of political communication and discourse—all of which are incredibly important in our increasingly polarized political climate. (This course prepares students for the AP examination in American Government. Note: To enroll in this course, students must have taken or be taking United States History or U.S. in the Modern World.)

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Comparative Government (AP)
(Semester 2)
In this course, we will develop the skills and habits of mind required to study and thoughtfully participate in our global political landscape. Through concrete historical and present day examples, we will analyze the current literature and theoretical basics of comparative politics, and question why governments and institutions around the world take the form they do. We will spend a significant amount of time studying the six countries specified in the AP syllabus: the United Kingdom, Iran, China, Russia, Nigeria, and Mexico. Through these case studies, we will hope to uncover and answer two essential questions: What defines and complicates democracy? And how does change occur and endure? By questioning the legitimacy of governments, the distribution of power, and the roles of culture, leaders, and institutions, we will use history to explain current trends and make future predictions. Ultimately, every aspect of the course will culminate in project-based assessments that apply comparative politics to the case of the Arab Spring. (This course prepares students for the AP examination in Comparative Government.)

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Principles of Economics
(Semester 1 or 2)
This course introduces students to the basic principles of both micro- and macroeconomics. The first half of the course will explore the basic economic concepts of scarcity, opportunity cost, and supply and demand analysis. It will then cover market structures and failures. The second part of the course will focus on the whole U.S. economy. It will cover such economic concepts as gross domestic product, economic growth, inflation, unemployment, monetary and fiscal policy and their possible causes and cures, and how they affect both individuals and the economy as a whole. This course will prepare students for both Behavioral Economics and Topics in Global Economics.

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Topics in Global Economics: Sustainable Development in the 21st Century
(Semester 2)
This course aims at stimulating students to analyze and critically evaluate the main global economic issues and their impact on individuals, companies and institutions. This course will examine the issues of poverty, inequality, growth and the human consequences of globalization within the framework of a sustainable future. This course relies on basic principles of economics to understand economic realities and policies in the US and abroad.

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Behavioral Economics: The Burdens of Decision-Making
(Semester 2)
This course explores the relatively new field of behavioral economics and works to revise standard economic models of human behavior by integrating psychology and economic thought. We will quickly discuss and dissect conventional economic theory and use that as a jumping off point to answer questions of behavior such as: How do people make decisions on what cereal to eat? Why do people feel more comfortable paying a dinner bill with a credit card instead of cash? What is the role of altruism, equity and fairness in our society and world? We will discuss these questions and many others throughout the semester. This course relies on the basic principles of economics to understand human decision making.

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Psychology Seminar
(Full Course)
This college-level course introduces students to the field of psychology through hands-on experiences with research and treatment design. In addition to learning about major areas within the field of psychology—including cognition, neurobiology, socio-emotional bases of behavior and human development—students will be required to work in teams and expected to improve their observation, leadership and presentation skills. Although it is not required, students may find it helpful to have taken or be taking biology and statistics. (Topics in Psychology is NOT a prerequisite for this course. Most of the topics students will need to cover in order to take the AP examination in Psychology will be studied during the year.)

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Topics in Psychology
(Half Course)
This course explores topics within the discipline of psychology, including development, personality theory, abnormal psychology, social psychology and learning. Through these topics, students also study the thought of foundational and contemporary theorists within the field of psychology. Course content integrates reading from the textbook and primary sources, as well as watching film from a psychological perspective. Students are encouraged to reflect on the material in both personal and academic ways and are evaluated through interactive learning projects, analytical essays, a mid-term exam, and classroom discussions.

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Religions of the Middle East
(Semester 1)
The Middle East is the birthplace of three of the world’s great religious traditions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It is also a center of conflict, often stemming from religious differences. In our shrinking and pluralistic world, having knowledge of religion has become increasingly important in order to be an informed citizen. Taking a global and historical view, this course examines the development of each of the Middle Eastern religions, analyzes their connections, and contemplates the source of their tension. Students will study each religion on its own terms through class discussion, primary texts, film, and inquiry into the spiritual and religious practices of each tradition.

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Religions of Asia
(Semester 2)
Modern historical events such as the liberation movement in India, the Chinese invasion of Tibet, and globalization have resulted in a closer association between the Western world and Asia. Throughout the 20th century, the West’s intrigue with Asian beliefs, philosophy and practices has intensified. This course explores the growing interest in Asian culture by focusing on the religions of the region—Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism and Zen—and charting their histories and influence in the global community. Students will study each religion on its own terms through class discussion, primary texts, film, and inquiry into the spiritual and religious practices of each tradition.

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Activism for Justice in a Digital World
(Half Course, Class I–III)
How do activists work to create a more just society in the United States and in the world? How are they combining new social media tools and traditional service activities to address problems of poverty, homelessness, hunger, educational inequity, healthcare, the environment and immigration? How can you make a difference? This course will explore current issues through readings by contemporary authors and news sources, as well as historical documents, speakers, and field trips into Boston. An integral component of this exploration will be students’ firsthand experiences through weekly service commitments to local sites (with homework time allocated to this hands-on work). Course work includes journal writing, short papers, and action projects.​